Flanged window as in-betweenie in a double-stud wall — head detail

Double-stud walls create plenty of room for thick insulation

Double-stud walls use common materials and familiar assemblies to create a low-tech, energy-efficient wall with lots of room for thick insulation. This framing method virtually eliminates thermal bridgingHeat flow that occurs across more conductive components in an otherwise well-insulated material, resulting in disproportionately significant heat loss. For example, steel studs in an insulated wall dramatically reduce the overall energy performance of the wall, because of thermal bridging through the steel. through the studs and greatly reduces sound transmission through walls.

The basic strategy is simple: The exterior walls are built from two parallel stud walls with a gap between the rows for extra insulation. Many builders use two parallel 2x4 walls with a 5-inch gap between them to create a 12-inch-thick wall. Of course, the wall can be thicker or thinner as circumstances dictate.

The most commonly used insulation for this method of construction is dense-packed cellulose, although other types of insulation (including blown-in fiberglass, mineral wool batts, or open-cell spray polyurethane foam) can certainly be used.

For more information, see GBA Encyclopedia: Double-Stud Walls.

Four Rules for Window Installation

Protect the head of the window from rain by tucking the window in from the face of the wall. Overhangs don’t help much on the coast — water blows sideways, up and down — and on taller buildings, an 18-inch overhang doesn’t help the ground-floor windows at all. On a building with 12-inch thick well-insulated walls, we’ll slide the windows back 3 1/2 inches so that every window has an individual built-in overhang right above the window head. That means we install most windows as “in-betweenies” instead of “innies” or “outies.”

Treat the window flange as an installation aid only, not as a water or air seal. Expect that water will be able to enter behind the flange during extreme conditions, and always provide a pathway out. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions; your warranty depends on it.

Since water will probably get behind the flange at some point, make sure it can’t pool on bare wood and rot your wall. Wrap rough openings properly, with tape or flashing that is lapped top over bottom, and make sure to install a sloped sill pan below the window. It’s now part of most window manufacturers’ instructions to place a clapboard or sloped shim at the rough sill, but we still rarely see this recommendation followed until we ask for it. The critical and often overlooked air-sealing area is at the interior of the sill. If the window is not shimmed at its sill — the usual situation we see — there needs to be a bed of caulk or a gasket seal at the inside face of the window to prevent water from blowing up under the open exterior window flange, right under the window frame, and into the building.

Establish a long-lasting air and water seal at the inside face of the window unit, and connect that seal to the rough opening. The best material for this seal is a flexible and long-lasting construction tape like Dow Weathermate, 3M 8067 Flashing Tape, or a European tape like Siga Rissan or Pro Clima Tescon. The tape will stay nice and warm on the interior side of the window; it won’t go through extreme freeze/thaw cycles like exterior tape. It should also remain flexible longer than spray foam. However, we realize this is a tedious and non-standard technique for most U.S. builders and will likely lead to an upcharge, so we usually have to accept spray foam as our interior air seal. (It should go without saying that fiberglass scraps do not belong in a rough opening.) We insist on a blower-door testTest used to determine a home’s airtightness: a powerful fan is mounted in an exterior door opening and used to pressurize or depressurize the house. By measuring the force needed to maintain a certain pressure difference, a measure of the home’s airtightness can be determined. Operating the blower door also exaggerates air leakage and permits a weatherization contractor to find and seal those leakage areas. to ensure the air seal around the window was installed properly, and we often make builders come back with caulk to close up the holes they are surprised to find in the spray foam installation. Our typical non-Passive HouseA residential building construction standard requiring very low levels of air leakage, very high levels of insulation, and windows with a very low U-factor. Developed in the early 1990s by Bo Adamson and Wolfgang Feist, the standard is now promoted by the Passivhaus Institut in Darmstadt, Germany. To meet the standard, a home must have an infiltration rate no greater than 0.60 AC/H @ 50 pascals, a maximum annual heating energy use of 15 kWh per square meter (4,755 Btu per square foot), a maximum annual cooling energy use of 15 kWh per square meter (1.39 kWh per square foot), and maximum source energy use for all purposes of 120 kWh per square meter (11.1 kWh per square foot). The standard recommends, but does not require, a maximum design heating load of 10 W per square meter and windows with a maximum U-factor of 0.14. The Passivhaus standard was developed for buildings in central and northern Europe; efforts are underway to clarify the best techniques to achieve the standard for buildings in hot climates. airtightness standard for residential work is 1.5 ach50, but we always give the builder the cfm50 number that would allow them to beat the 0.4 ach50 achieved by one of their competitors. It never hurts to let them know where the bar really sits.


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Jun 6, 2018 8:38 AM ET

Response to Peter Staecker
by Martin Holladay

It's highly unlikely that a GBA reader will ever see your question, since it's posted on an obscure page. I suggest that you re-post your question on GBA's question-and-answer page. Here is the link:

If you post your question there, there is a much better likelihood that you'll receive an answer.

Jun 6, 2018 8:24 AM ET

thermal bridge?
by Peter Staecker

Hi, Peter in zone 5 (boston), looking at a PGH using double stud walls (2x3's inboard, 2x4's outboard; 2.0 SPF at the outside wall and cellulose for the remainder) with about 10" of insulation space (shooting for R-40). See case 10 of Bldg America report BA-0903 (Straube and Smegal - 2014). Looking for R-7 or better windows (mounted as in-betweenies) and interested in minimizing any thermal bridging due to the window box and mounting method shown in the figures of this note. Ideas or construction methods that you can share would be appreciated.

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